Impact of Automated Road Transport

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SAFETY

Crash avoidance and mitigation. Measured as fatalities, injuries and property damage for vehicle occupants and other road users. All crash avoidance applications (mobility applications, such as platooning, may also have safety implications)


VEHICLE OPERATIONS

Includes acceleration, deceleration, lane keeping, car following, lane changing, gap acceptance: all affect highway capacity. Automated and V2x applications which provide longitudinal and/or lateral control with respect to the road and other operations.


ENERGY / EMISSIONS

Energy consumption and tailpipe emissions of pollutants including greenhouse gases. Applications which affect vehicle operations (platooning), travel behavior, or which enable new means of propulsion (e.g., electric)


PERSONAL MOBILITY

Mobility from a user standpoint. Includes journey quality (comfort), travel time, cost; and whether the travel option is available to someone (e.g., a non-motorist). Includes equity and accessibility considerations. Higher levels of automation will have the most significant impacts, by providing mobility for non-motorists and enabling multi-tasking. These include first mile/last mile services and accessibility applications.


TRAVEL BEHAVIOR

User response to AV options, in terms of number and length of journeys, and whether vehicles or journeys are shared. Any applications (L4/L5) that have a significant impact on personal mobility, or on sharing of vehicles and trips.


NETWORK EFFICIENCY

Lane, link and intersection capacity in a regional transport network. Applications which affect vehicle operations including V2X communications.


PUBLIC HEALTH

AV impacts on the health of communities, via safety, air pollution, effect on active transport, and access to medical care, food, employment, education and recreation. Applications that affect safety, emissions, personal mobility and travel behaviour. Accessibility applications.


LAND USE

Use of land for transport functions (e.g., parking, road geometry). Location and density of housing, employment and recreation. Applications that affect personal mobility, network efficiency, travel behavior, and the need for parking.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS

Improved safety, use of time, freight movement, travel options for non-motorists, public health and land use; effects of changed emissions (including climate change). Changes to labor markets and industries. Applications that affect safety, energy/emissions, network efficiency, personal mobility, public health and land use.