There are a series of definitions for Automation Levels. Below we list the known definitions.
SAE levels of Automation
SAE International released standard J3016 with the goal of providing common terminology for automated driving. It offers taxonomy and definitions for terms related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems ranging in level from no automation to full automation.
BASt levels of Automation
BASt Levels of automation: The BASt definitions have been proposed already in 2010 and were taken up as a basis to build the other definitions listed here.
- Full automation: The system takes over longitudinal and lateral control completely and permanently. In case of a takeover request that is not followed, the system will return to the minimal risk condition by itself.
- High automation: The system takes over longitudinal and lateral control; the driver is no longer required* to permanently monitor the system. In case of a take-over request, the driver must take-over control with a certain time BASt-Expert-Group definitions of vehicle automation-degrees: degree of request, the driver must take-over control with a certain time buffer.
- Partial automation: The system takes over longitudinal and lateral control, the driver shall permanently monitor the system and shall be prepared to take over control at any time.
- Driver Assistance: The driver permanently controls either longitudinal or lateral control. The other task can be automated to a certain extent by the assistance system.
- Driver Only: Human driver executes manual driving task
NHTSA levels of Automation
NHTSA Levels of automation: Most of the discussions withing the Trilateral EU-US-JPN activities are based on the NHTSA definitions
The definitions below cover the complete range of vehicle automation, ranging from vehicles that do not have any of their control systems automated (level 0) through fully automated vehicles (level 4).
- Level 0 – No-Automation. The driver is in complete and sole control of the primary vehicle controls (brake, steering, throttle, and motive power) at all times, and is solely responsible for monitoring the roadway and for safe operation of all vehicle controls.
- Level 1 – Function-specific Automation: Automation at this level involves one or more specific control functions; if multiple functions are automated, they operate independently from each other. The driver has overall control, and is solely responsible for safe operation, but can choose to cede limited authority over a primary control (as in adaptive cruise control), the vehicle can automatically assume limited authority over a primary control (as in electronic stability control), or the automated system can provide added control to aid the driver in certain normal driving or crash-imminent situations (e.g., dynamic brake support in emergencies).
- Level 2 - Combined Function Automation: This level involves automation of at least two primary control functions designed to work in unison to relieve the driver of control of those functions. Vehicles at this level of automation can utilize shared authority when the driver cedes active primary control in certain limited driving situations. The driver is still responsible for monitoring the roadway and safe operation and is expected to be available for control at all times and on short notice.
- Level 3 - Limited Self-Driving Automation: Vehicles at this level of automation enable the driver to cede full control of all safety-critical functions under certain traffic or environmental conditions and in those conditions to rely heavily on the vehicle to monitor for changes in those conditions requiring transition back to driver control. The driver is expected to be available for occasional control, but with sufficiently comfortable transition time.
- Level 4 - Full Self-Driving Automation (Level 4): The vehicle is designed to perform all safety-critical driving functions and monitor roadway conditions for an entire trip. Such a design anticipates that the driver1 will provide destination or navigation input, but is not expected to be available for control at any time during the trip. This includes both occupied and unoccupied vehicles. By design, safe operation rests solely on the automated vehicle system.