Automated Functions

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Current and Future Systems (Level 0)

  • LCA. Lane Change Assist: The system monitors the areas to the left and to the right of the car, including the blind spot detection, and up to 50 metres behind it and warns you of a potentially hazardous situation by means of flashing warning lights in the exterior mirrors.
  • PDC. Park Distance Control. It supports the driver to manoeuvre into tight spaces and reduce stress by informing him of the distance from obstacles by means of acoustic or, depending on vehicle, optical signals.
  • LDW. Lane Departure Warning. Lane Departure Warning helps to prevent accidents caused by unintentionally wandering out of lane, and represents a major safety gain on motorways and major trunk roads. If there is an indication that the vehicle is about to leave the lane unintentionally, the system alerts the driver visually and in some cases by means of a signal on the steering wheel.
  • FCW. Front Collision Warning. The Front Collision Warning Monitoring system uses a radar sensor to detect situations where the distance to the vehicle in front is critical and helps to reduce the vehicle’s stopping distance. In dangerous situations, the system alerts the driver by means of visual and acoustic signals and/or with a warning jolt of the brakes. Front Collision Warning operates independently of the ACC automatic distance control.

Current Systems (Level 1)

  • ACC. Adaptive Cruise Control. The cruise control system with “automatic distance control ACC” uses a distance sensor to measure the distance and speed relative to vehicles driving ahead. The driver sets the speed and the required time gap with buttons on the multifunction steering wheel or with the steering column stalk (depending on model).The target and actual distance from following traffic can be shown as a comparison in the multifunction display.
  • PA. Park Assist. Park Assist automatically steers the car into parallel and bay parking spaces, and also out of parallel parking spaces. The system assists the driver by automatically carrying out the optimum steering movements in order to reserve-park on the ideal line. The measurement of the parking space, the allocation of the starting position and the steering movements are automatically undertaken by the Park Assist: all the driver has to do is to operate the accelerator and the brake. This means that the driver retains control of the car at all times.
  • ACC including Stop & Go. Adaptive cruise control with stop & go function includes automatic distance control (control range 0-250 km/h) and, within the limits of the system, detects a preceding vehicle. It maintains a safe distance by automatically applying the brakes and accelerating. In slow-moving traffic and congestion, it governs braking and acceleration.
  • LKA. Lane Keeping Assist. Lane Assist automatically becomes active from a specific speed (normally from 50 km/h) and upwards. The system detects the lane markings and works out the position of the vehicle. If the car starts to drift in lane, or the speed falls below 50 km/h, the LKA function warns the driver. Then it is up to the driver to take correcting action.

Last mile solutions:

  • Last mile taxi:
    • Cybercars, Gen 1 (level 4). Fully automated in its area of operation and takes a limited number of passengers with a maximum speed of 40km/h.
    • Cybercars , Gen 2 (level 4). The last mile solution is fully automated in its area of operations. It operates in a specific area with adapted infrastructure.
    • Automated taxi: fully automated driving that can take passengers to all places. No realistic time estimation exists on this system.
  • Automated bus or PRT. Automated bus or personal rapid transit.
    • Automated bus or PRT in segregated lane. Gen 1 (level 4): The automated bus drives in segregated bus lanes and dedicated infrastructure, with a maximum speed of 40km/h.
    • Automated bus or PRT in dedicated lane. Gen 2 (level 4): The automated bus drives in dedicated bus lanes and supporting infrastructure with normal city vehicle speeds. Additional functionality such as adaptive urban traffic control system that controls the traffic lights and gives speed advices and priority can be introduced when these systems reach the market.
    • Automated bus (level 4): The automated bus drives in mixed traffic in the defined area of operation.

Automated Private Vehicle Paths

  • Automated parking assistance:
    • Park assistance (level 2): Partial Automated Parking into and out of a parking space, working on public parking area or in private garage. Via smartphone or key parking process is started, vehicle accomplishes parking manoeuvres by itself. The driver can be located outside of the vehicle, but has to constantly monitor the system, stops parking maneuverer if required.
    • Parking Garage Pilot (level 4): Highly Automated parking including manoeuvring to and from parking place (driverless valet parking) in parking garage the driver does not have to monitor the system constantly and may leave once the system is active. Via smartphone or key parking maneuverer and return of the vehicle is initiated.
  • Highway Pilot
    • Traffic Jam Assist (level 2): The function controls the vehicle longitudinal and lateral to follow the traffic flow in low speeds (<30km). The system can be seen as an extension of the ACC with Stop&Go functionality.
    • Traffic Jam Chauffeur (Level 3): Conditional automated driving in traffic jam up to 60 km/h on motorways and motorway similar roads. The system can be activated, if traffic jam scenario exists. It detects slow driving vehicle in front and then handles the vehicle both longitudinal and lateral. Driver must deliberately activate the system, but does not have to monitor the system constantly. Driver can at all times override of switch off the system. Note: There is no take over request to the driver from the system.
    • Highway Chauffeur (level 3): Conditional Automated Driving up to 130 km/h on motorways or motorway similar roads. From entrance to exit, on all lanes, incl. overtaking. The driver must deliberately activate the system, but does not have to monitor the system constantly. The driver can at all times override or switch off the system. The system can request the driver to take over within a specific time, if automation gets to its system limits.
    • Highway Pilot (level 4): Automated Driving up to 130 km/h on motorways or motorway similar roads from entrance to exit, on all lanes, incl. overtaking. The driver must deliberately activate the system, but does not have to monitor the system constantly. The driver can at all times override or switch off the system. There are no request from the system to the driver to take over when the systems in normal operation area (i.e. on the motorway). Depending on the deployment of cooperative systems ad-hoc convoys could also be created if V2V communication is available.

Urban and Suburban Pilot (level 4): Highly automated driving up to limitation speed, in urban and suburban areas. The system can be activated by the driver on defined road segments, in all traffic conditions, without lane change in the first phase. The driver can at all-time override or switch off the system.

  • Fully automated private vehicle (level 5): The fully automated vehicle should be able to handle all driving from point A to B, without any input from the passenger. The driver can at all-time override or switch off the system. Note: no realistic time estimation exists on this system.

Commercial vehicles automation paths

  • Platooning.
    • C-ACC Platooning: Partially automated truck platooning, in which trucks are coupled by cooperative ACC (CACC), implementing engine and brake control keeping a short but safe distance to the lead vehicle, while the drivers remain responsible for all other driving functions.
    • Truck Platooning: This function enables platooning in specific lane. The vehicle should be able to keep it position in the platoon with a fixed distance or fixed time difference from the front vehicle. The behaviour of the first vehicle (e.g. braking and steering) should be transmitted be V2V communication. The function should also handle vehicle that wants to leave the platoon.
  • Highway Pilot.
    • Traffic Jam Assist (Level 2): The function controls the vehicle longitudinal and lateral to follow the traffic flow in low speeds (<30km). The system can be seen as an extension of the ACC with Stop&Go functionality.
    • Traffic Jam Chauffeur (level 3): Conditional automated driving in traffic jam up to 60 km/h on motorways and motorway similar roads. The system can be activated, if traffic jam scenario exists. It detects slow driving vehicle in front and then handles the vehicle both longitudinal and lateral. Driver must deliberately activate the system, but does not have to monitor the system constantly. Driver can at all times override of switch off the system. Note: There is no take over request to the driver from the system.
    • Highway Chauffeur (Level 3): Conditional Automated Driving up to 90 km/h on motorways or motorway similar roads from entrance to exit, on all lanes, incl. overtaking. The driver must deliberately activate the system, but does not have to monitor the system constantly. The driver can at all times override or switch off the system. The system can request the driver to take over within a specific time, if automation gets to its system limits.
    • Highway pilot with ad-hoc platooning (level 4): Automated Driving up to 110 km/h on motorways or motorway similar roads from entrance to exit, on all lanes, incl. overtaking. The driver must deliberately activate the system, but does not have to monitor the system constantly. The driver can at all times override or switch off the system. There are no request from the system to the driver to take over when the systems in normal operation area (i.e. on the motorway). Depending on the deployment of cooperative systems ad-hoc convoys could also be created if V2V communication is available, see 6.3.1.
    • Fully automated Truck (level 5): The fully automated Truck should be able to handle all driving from point A to B. no driver need to be in the vehicle. Note: no realistic time estimation exists on this system.

Reference: D3.1.2 from the VRA Project; ERTRAC Roadmap.