DISCUSSION GROUPS

The “deployment path” discussion group gathers the main experts and stakeholders to describe possible deployment paths for the different types of vehicle and road automation.

The activities of the discussion group consist of the following tasks:

• Extend the European concertation activities by convening discussion group meetings on deployment needs and lead the discussion on deployment path and business models for automation in Europe
• Agree on and describe deployment paths and business models for the deployment of automated vehicles in Europe
• Lead the writing of a white or position paper on the deployment of Automation in Europe
The deployment of vehicle and road automation on the European roads may lead to substantial paradigm shifts in the way we live and use mobility. Since the transition to the new situation will happen gradually, different step by step deployment scenarios will be investigated. The discussion group will describe the expected impact of this evolution on vehicles, infrastructure and management centres. In this context, the role and responsibilities of the different stakeholders involved into the value chain will be analysed: the vehicle manufacturers, the road operators and the fleet owners/mobility service providers. The value chain and related business models behind the deployment paths will be described.

VRA Partners and international associated partners provide input, experiences and best practices from other markets, especially Japan and US.

The discussion outcome will be consolidated in a yearly report on “Deployment paths for Vehicle and Road Automation.”

An overview of the status of the activities related to the legal issues is provided in the following slides:
2014_05_07_WG_Automation_Deployment

The activities of the discussion group “regulatory needs” consist of the following tasks:

• Convene specific meetings, and lead and contribute to the discussions on regulatory needs for deployment of automation and automated vehicles in Europe; and legal and liability issues linking with regulatory measures.
• Contribute to reach common positions and write a white or position paper on the topic and present it to key stakeholders

Currently, the Vienna convention imposes severe limitation on the deployment of vehicle and road automation solutions. It is important to investigate, on one hand, how automated systems can be designed so that they are compatible with the existing Vienna convention and national regulations, and, on the other hand, how the Vienna convention and national regulations should evolve to allow vehicle and road automation solutions.

The adaptation of the existing regulatory framework is a long and complex process. Current legal framework in most European countries is based on the principle that the driver must always be in full control of the vehicle. Liability issues in case of an accident as well as insurance aspects can be greatly impacted if regulations are adapted.

The activities will take place in close cooperation with existing bodies such as UNECE WP29, and with other ongoing activities in this field such as the CityMobil2 project. Cooperation with both industry and public authorities is a must to reach any commitment and prepare for deployment.

The discussion group will take into account the current progress (experience and best practices) from other regions in the world (USA and Japan). The regulatory framework in these countries is not as stringent as the one stipulated by the Vienna convention. Already, in Nevada, California, Florida and other US states, the operation of driverless vehicles is regulated for research purpose; European member states should rapidly fill this gap in order to safeguard the European competitiveness and technology lead.

The outcome of the discussion group will be consolidated at the end of each period in a report “Regulatory needs and solutions for deployment of Vehicle and Road Automation.”

An overview of the status of the activities related to the legal issues is provided in the following slides:
iMobility Forum WG AUT_legal issues

The discussion group will:

• Convene discussion group meetings to agree on the approach towards standardisation and certification, the needs and steps towards healthy market conditions
• Lead and contribute to the European position on standardisation and certification of automation and automated vehicles in Europe, needed to unblock the deployment of automation in Europe
• Issue a position or white paper on the topic
As standardisation needs are often global, the group will make efforts to report and bring this discussion at international level at international meetings.

Task WP3.3 will bring together VRA experts and stakeholders to debate and find consensus on the needs for standardisation and certification enabling healthy market conditions before deployment.

Today, there is a lack of standards regarding vehicle and road automation, most probably because the emergence of automation on our roads and vehicles is still at its infancy. In most cases, standards exist together with some sort of regulation driven by societal development or public safety needs. If deployment of Vehicle and Road Automation is planned to happen in the next decade, it is urgent to identify and address the standardisation needs and propose solutions suiting the stakeholders. The discussions around these topics are often passionate as over-specification from the public sector represents heavy costs for the industry. By having a constructive discussion, a good balance should be found at an early stage. On the other hand, there are a numerous standards already developed in the field of robotics, rail transport and others that could constitute the basis to support the development of appropriate standards for Vehicle and Road Automation. Also, CityMobil2 is addressing the certification of automated urban road services. From the automotive industry side, processes and tests for the certification and verification of highly and fully automated vehicles are being defined, among others, based on the ISO 26262 which is a Functional Safety standard, titled “Road vehicles – Functional safety”.

Vehicle and Road Automation will lead to additional requirements in terms of interoperability and performance almost certainly leading to certification needs. It is important to work along with the Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) standardisation bodies to align the needs of the upcoming VRA solutions.

The exact approach of the discussion group will be defined early in the project but current discussions have raised the need to identify the main building blocks that make up the vehicle and road automation systems as part of a VRA system architecture. This WP will gather the experts in this domain and agree on the steps to take in order to define the architecture and examine for each of the building blocks the required certification or standardisation actions.

WP3.3 ouctome will be consolidated at the end of each period in the deliverable series D3.3.x on “Standardisation and certification needs and recommendations for deployment of Vehicle and Road Automation.”

This task will bring together VRA experts and stakeholder to discuss the needs of automated driving regarding connectivity. WP3.4 will consider the work performed in WP3.1 regarding deployment paths to guide the discussion.

Today, Europe has the lead in cooperative systems, as shown by the several European initiatives (e.g. C-ITS platform promoted by the European Commission) and field operational tests. This will assure a strong position in the new generation of highly & fully automated vehicles, while addressing the clear challenges that will arise from the inter-connected vehicles and infrastructure. Connectivity plays a vital role in future ITS and automated driving. The convergence of communication- and sensor-based technologies could deliver better safety, mobility, and self-driving capability than either approach could deliver on its own.

Practically, WP3.4 will:

• Convene discussion group meetings to agree on the approach towards connectivity in the framework of automation in road transport, the needs and next steps
• Lead and contribute to the European position on connectivity issues regarding automation to unblock the deployment of automation in Europe
• Issue a position or white paper on the topic

As connectivity is an important aspect worldwide and one of the subjects under cooperation in the tri-lateral discussion groups, WP3.4 will make efforts to report and bring this discussion at international level at meetings organised by WP2.1.

WP3.4 outcome will be consolidated at the end of each period in the deliverable series D3.4.x on “Connectivity for deployment of Vehicle and Road Automation: needs and recommendations” due at M27, M41. The milestones M3.2, and M3.3 represent the reporting timeline of the discussion group.

This task will promote the discussion among VRA experts and stakeholder on the topic of Digital Infrastructure.
The term Digital Infrastructure indicates the static and dynamic digital representation of the physical world
with which the automated vehicle will interact to operate. WP3.6 will address several open aspects such as:
standardized representations, content types, guarantee quality, collection and minimum requirements. In
addition it will deal with the issue of how to make it financially viable and sustainable. This effort will require
cooperation from the vehicles and the infrastructure operators to collect update and correct eventual changes to
the physical reality.

WP3.6 will debate and investigate the open research and development issues, such as:

• Create a Digital Infrastructure framework between public authorities and map providers including governance,
role and responsibilities, roadmap towards a digital infrastructure and regulations;
• Investigate impact/benefits of shift of investments between roadside furniture (post signs) and digital
infrastructure.
• Discuss applications of Digital Infrastructure in different use cases such as intelligent intersections

More in detail, WP3.6 will:
• Convene discussion group meetings and breakout sessions in collaboration with the other WPs
• Lead and contribute to the European position on Digital Infrastructure supporting the activity of WP2.1
• Issue a position or white paper on the topic

This task will promote the discussion among VRA experts and stakeholder on the topic of Human Factors for Vehicle and Road Automation.

Supporting Human Factors (HF) research and development in the context of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is a crucial need when addressing the deployment of safe, efficient and comfortable ITS in road transport. This involves considering the role of humans not only as drivers of automated vehicles, but as pedestrians, cyclists and drivers of other vehicles interacting with such systems and the increasing levels of ITS integrated in current and future infrastructure.

In this task, the aim is to support HF-related work in the context of Vehicle and Road Automation. The fruitful collaboration between HF and other professionals in the iMobility forum will be used as input to feed WP3.5 activity. The work will be consolidated in additional face-to-face meetings, phone conferences and provided as output within the allocated VRA deliverable. Strong connection to the other work packages of the VRA project will be considered and developed further.

The output will be mainly focused on HF-related recommendations and roadmaps for the European Commission, supporting the activity described the other tasks of WP3. Further, international collaboration, such as EU-USA-Japan, will be supported by the participation of the WP3.5 partners to the trilateral Automation in Road Transport WG meetings. Networking events will be organized to understand research directions and outputs on a tri-lateral platform, in collaboration with WP2.1.

The task aims at defining a unified list of potential direct and indirect socio-economic impacts and identifying on-going and completed research activities which attempted the quantification of such benefits to collect the results of the different evaluations. The works needs to be coordinated with the work on scenarios as many of the impacts will differ in the different scenarios.

The task work is organized according to the following impact categories:

• Technical impact, measuring technology performances, and its influences on the different scenarios, including human machine interaction
• User acceptance which includes user reactions to the new technology and transport system from comfort to accessibility to the user perception of safety and security
• Transport patterns which groups all transport related impact from capacity to demand to travel time and to occupancy rate
• Safety and security, dedicated specifically to measure (or estimate) the impact on safety of the proposed technologies and transport systems and on real measurements (if available) on harassment and other security threats
• Energy and environment, dedicated to the impact of the technologies on energy consumption and vehicle pollution
• Impacts on economy ranging from the impact on the built environment (less parking and more kiss and ride) to the car ownership rate to lifestyle change to impact on productivity

The working method will be based on literature and project review and it will assess:
• gaps in the current literature in terms of impacts
• to assess the impacts of the different automation technologies in the different application scenarios already covered by existing studies

This task will promote the discussion among VRA experts and stakeholders on the topic of Decision and Control Algorithms.

Automated vehicles will behave in a certain way based on the used decision, planning and control algorithms and their interaction with driver, environment and other cooperative vehicles and infrastructure components. Some of these algorithms can be optimized individually without much need for international harmonization. However, especially in the area of cooperative driving and ITS, supported by wireless communication among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure, an international harmonization needs to be fostered in order to achieve interoperability not only regarding transmission protocols but also regarding the meaning of automated intentions, actions, plans and cooperation.

WP 3.8 aims to support the work related to Decision and Control Algorithms in the context of ITS and, in particular, for vehicle and road automation. The fruitful collaboration with other topics and expert in the iMobility forum as well as in the VRA project will be used as input, consolidated in additional face-to-face meetings, phone conferences and provided as output within the allocated VRA deliverable. Strong connection to the other work packages of the VRA project will be considered and developed further. The output will be mainly focused on recommendations and roadmaps on decision and control algorithms for the European Commission. Further, international collaboration, such as EU-USA-Japan, will be supported by the participation of the members of the work package to the trilateral Automation in Road Transport WG meetings as needed.

 

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